New Historical Perspectives on Women and Economics

New Historical Perspectives on Women and Economics. 2022. Edited by Cléo Chassonnery-Zaïgouche, Evelyn L. Forget, and John D. Singleton. Supplement to volume 54 of HOPE. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

"Women and Economics: New Historical Perspectives," by Cléo Chassonnery-Zaïgouche, Evelyn L. Forget, and John D. Singleton (pp. 1–15). Women-centered accounts of the history of economics can recuperate or make visible the contributions of women, complement or challenge received interpretations, and identify, describe, and apply the construct of gender.

"A Historical Portrait of Female Economists' Coauthorship Networks," by Erin Hengel and Sarah Louisa Phythian-Adams (pp. 17–41). After reaching a low in the 1970s, the number of economics papers written by women has risen, perhaps due to coathorship but more likely due to cultural changes within economics departments and efforts to increase the share of women in influential research networks.

"Hidden Figures: A New History of the Permanent Income Hypothesis," by Jennifer Burns (pp. 43–68). Milton Friedman's permanent income hypothesis was a joint discovery with origins in conversations, research, and debates among a group of female scholars (Margaret Reid, Dorothy Brady, and Rose Friedman) working in uneasy relationship to academic economics.

"Two 'Two Ostrom' Problems," by Marianne Johnson (pp. 69–96). The career of Elinor Ostrom--as spouse and research partner of Vincent Ostrom and as a multidisciplinary scholar of the commons--illuminates the constraints women face navigating academic careers and the remarkable force a Nobel Prize exerts on reputation.

"Climbing the Obelisk: The Trajectories of Five Women Economists in Columbia, ca. 1950–70," by André Guiot-Isaac and Camila Orozco Espinel (pp. 97–125). A focus on five women economists in Columbia reveals how a mix of professional strategies—securing the support of male figures, delicately balancing fearlessness and pragmatism, delegating domestic tasks to others—allowed them to succeed.

"'Writing History as a Way of Life': The Life and Work of Margaret Marie Garritsen de Vries," by Christina Laskaridis (pp. 127–57).  Though trained as an economist, Garritsen de Vries became the official historian of the IMF—not by choice by because of the career choices she faced as a woman in a male-dominated field and organization.

"A History of the Institutionalization of Feminist Economics through Its Tensions and Founders," by Camila Orozco Espinel and Rebeca Gomez Betancourt (pp. 159–92). Feminist economics comprises multiple methodological approaches, and it developed and strengthened though the creation of formal institutions such as the International Association for Feminist Economics and the journal "Feminist Economics," allowing economists working from a feminist perspective to remain in the discipline. 

"Tracing Barbara Bergmann's Occupational Crowding Hypothesis: A Recent History," by Sarah F. Small (pp. 193–220). Bergmann's hypothesis was initially set alongside the work of other economists who studied discrimination but was eventually pushed out of the mainstream, perhaps because of Bergmann's normative stances, perhaps because her model suggests that discrimination maintains group privilege and is thus out of step with a focus on individual rationality.

"Controlling for What? Movements, Measures, and Meanings in the US Gender Wage Gap Debate," by Daniel Hirschman (pp. 221–57). The history of the gender pay gap involves the development of modern economics and sociology, the shifting fortunes of the feminist and labor movements, the role of the law in shaping debates about inequality, and dramatic changes in what Goffman called the "arrangement between the sexes."

"The Queen of the Social Sciences: The Reproduction of a [White] 'Man's Field,'" by Jennnifer Cohen (pp. 259–82). Economics remains a "man's field" through structural resistance to women economists, interpretating women's economic activities as marginal to the "real business" of economics, and delegitimizing feminist research about those activities.